How to Reference in Assignment: A Practical Guide

How to Reference in Assignment

Referencing can be a difficult task, but do not worry! Our detailed guide will explain the steps to follow.

In academic writing, referencing is essential. It acknowledges the work of others and strengthens and clarifies your views. You must cite your sources properly to avoid plagiarism and show that you have read the pertinent literature. We will thoroughly explain how to cite sources in the assignment in this post, guaranteeing that you follow the rules of academic integrity. This article can be usefull for nursing assignments, nursing, economics etc.

A journey through different referencing styles

There are numerous reference formats, each with its own set of rules and instructions for citing sources. The topic of study or the precise criteria of the assignment frequently influence the choice of referencing style. This overview looks at several of the most used citation formats for academic writing, including APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard.

APA (American Psychological Association)

The social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, and education, frequently employ the APA style. It provides guidelines for structuring reference lists, in-text citations, and general document design. In-text citations in APA format for assignments include the author’s last name and the publication year (e.g., Smith, 2019).

MLA (Modern Language Association)

The humanities, language studies, and other academic fields use MLA style often. It focuses on brief in-text citations and a thorough “Works Cited” page at the end of the paper. In-text citations in MLA format often include the page number and the author’s last name (e.g., Smith 45). Every source cited in the study is fully described on the “Works Cited” page.

Chicago (Chicago Manual of Style)

Chicago style provides two citation formats: notes and bibliography and author-date. The notes and bibliography method employs a separate bibliography at the end. The author-date system uses in-text citations with the author’s last name and publication year (e.g., Smith 2019).


The social sciences, business, and other disciplines frequently choose the Harvard referencing style. It focuses on author-date citations, which include the author’s last name and the year of publication (e.g., Smith, 2019) within the text. A complete reference list with full publishing details for each mentioned source is provided at the end of the document.

These are only a few examples of referencing styles. There are many more, including IEEE (used in engineering and computer science) and Vancouver (present in the medical and scientific areas). These styles may vary or have requirements depending on the institution or professor. To guarantee accurate reference, it is essential to refer to the relevant style manual or any other instructions provided for your work.

In-text Citations vs. Bibliographies: Let’s Understand the Difference

By knowing the difference between in-text citations and bibliographies, you may successfully and correctly cite sources in text and improve the credibility of your writing. So, let’s start comparing!

To begin with, both of them serve the purpose of acknowledging the sources used — it’s their common feature. However, they differ in where they are located in the text and how much information is given.

In-text citations

Within the content of your assignment, in-text citations are brief references. They direct readers to the complete source material in your bibliography or reference list. They are used to credit information, concepts, or quotations to their sources.

Depending on the chosen citation style, in-text citations are frequently placed inside parentheses or as superscript numbers. They give major details, including the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number. For illustration, an in-text citation in APA style would appear as follows: (Author, year). In MLA style, it would be: (Author page number). In-text citations are placed immediately after the information or quote is referenced.

Writers can show that they participate in intellectual discussions by incorporating in-text citations. Also, It enables readers to check the integrity of the presented data.


On the other hand, reference lists or bibliographies are thorough lists of all the sources used in a project. Usually, authors add them at the end of the assignment. It gives readers all the information necessary to discover and access the sources. Each entry in the bibliography contains comprehensive information, including the author’s name, the book’s title, the year of publication, and some other information.

The bibliography for assignment must be arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name or, if none is given, by title. The bibliography’s format and presentation must adhere to its rules. No matter what citation style is used — APA, MLA, Chicago, or another.

How to Write References in Assignment

Now, let’s look at clear referencing examples using popular citation styles and various source types.

APA style examples

In-text citation:

One author: (Smith, 2022);

Two authors: (Smith & Johnson, 2022);

Three or more authors: (Smith et al., 2022).

“Et al.” is an abbreviation derived from the Latin phrase “et alia,” which translates to “and others” in English. It is commonly used when citing sources with multiple authors.

Bibliographic reference:

Book: Smith, J. (2022). Title of Book. Publisher.

Journal article: Smith, J., & Johnson, A. (2022). Title of Article. Journal Name, volume(issue), page range.

Website: Smith, J. (2022). Title of Webpage. Retrieved from URL.

MLA style examples

In-text citation:

One author: (Smith 32);

Two authors: (Smith and Johnson 45);

Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 56)

Bibliographic reference:

Book: Smith, John. Title of Book. Publisher, year.

Journal article: Smith, John, and Anne Johnson. “Title of Article.” Journal Name, vol. 10, no. 2, 2022, pp. 45-60.

Website: Smith, John. “Title of Webpage.” Website Name, Publisher/Website, URL.

Chicago style examples

In-text citation:

One author: (Smith 2022);

Two authors: (Smith and Johnson 2022);

Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2022).

Bibliographic reference:

Book: Smith, John. Title of Book. Publisher, year.

Journal article: Smith, John, and Anne Johnson. “Title of Article.” Journal Name volume number (year): page range.

Website: Smith, John. “Title of Webpage.” Website Name. URL (accessed Month Day, Year).

How to Cite an Assignment With Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing?

When you include information from other sources in your assignments, it’s essential to quote, paraphrase, and summarize correctly. These methods allow you to use someone else’s ideas while giving them credit. Let’s explore each way and discover how to cite an assignment properly.

Quoting Paraphrasing Summarizing
Quoting means using the exact words from a source. Use quotation marks around the borrowed text and mention the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number. For example, “According to Smith (2022), ‘quote goes here’ (p. 45)”. Paraphrasing means putting someone else’s ideas into your own words. It shows that you understand the material without copying it. Instead of using quotation marks, you must mention the author’s name and the year. For instance, According to Smith (2022), “paraphrased idea goes here.” Summarizing involves giving a short overview of a larger piece of information. You present the main points without including all the details. Mention the author’s name and the year. For example, Smith (2022) summarizes that “summarized content goes here.”

To cite correctly, provide a complete reference for each source in your bibliography or reference list. Follow the rules of the citation style you’re using (like APA, MLA, or Chicago) for books, articles, websites, etc.

How to Cite Sources in the Assignment: Special Cases

Referencing sources is usually straightforward. However, some exceptional cases require additional attention.

Multiple Authors

When a source has multiple authors, include all the authors’ names in the reference. Use the word “and” before the last author’s name. For in-text citations, use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”

For example, (Smith et al., 2022) or Smith et al. (2022).

No Author

If a source does not have an author, use the work’s title in the in-text citation and bibliography. Enclose the title in quotation marks or use italics if it is a longer work like a book or a journal.

For example, (“Title of the Article,” 2022) or Title of the Book (2022).

No Date

If a source does not have a publication date, use “n.d.” (which stands for “no date”) in both the in-text citation and the reference list.

For example, (Smith, n.d.) or Smith (n.d.).

Personal Communications

If you want to reference interviews, emails, or conversations, provide the individual’s name and specify the type of communication. In the in-text citation, include the person’s name and the date of the contact.

For example, (J. Smith, personal communication, May 1, 2022).

Secondary Sources

Sometimes, you may need to cite a source you have not directly accessed but found through another author’s work. It is called citing a secondary source. In the in-text citation, include the original author’s name and the author of the work you have read, followed by “as cited in.” Provide the complete reference for the work you have read in the reference list.

For example, (Smith, as cited in Johnson, 2022) or Johnson (2022) cited Smith.

Referencing Tools and Software

As you see, creating accurate references can be time-consuming and challenging. Thankfully, there are referencing tools and software available to simplify this task.

One such tool is the APA Citation Generator. It is designed specifically for APA style, allowing users to effortlessly generate citations for various sources. Input the necessary information, and the generator will create the citation in the correct format.

Similarly, the MLA Reference Generator is a valuable tool for generating citations in MLA style. It streamlines the process by providing a user-friendly interface to enter the required details, resulting in accurate and properly formatted citations.

These tools will save you time and reduce the chances of errors.

Avoiding plagiarism: the importance of accurate referencing

In academic writing, plagiarism is a severe infraction with adverse effects. Accurate reference is crucial to avoiding this unethical and intellectual disaster. You credit the original authors and demonstrate integrity by properly citing your sources.

Failure to do so may result in academic sanctions, reputational harm, and legal implications. Plagiarism weakens the standards of intellectual integrity and originality and diminishes the value of your work. You may promote academic integrity, honor the scholarly contributions of others, and protect your academic and professional future by adopting appropriate referencing procedures.

Let’s make conclusions

To sum up, mastering the art of referencing is a fundamental skill for every student and researcher. Throughout this practical guide, we have explored the critical referencing elements, including in-text citations, bibliographies, and reference lists. We have discussed the importance of accurately citing sources and avoiding plagiarism, ensuring academic integrity, and upholding the ethical standards of scholarship.

Embrace the habit of acknowledging your sources to give credit where it is due and strengthen the credibility and reliability of your assignments. As you continue your academic journey, make accurate referencing an integral part of your writing process. It will elevate the quality of your work and showcase your commitment to academic excellence. Happy referencing!

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